INTRODUCTION TO INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE

Posted on May 24 2012 by Abdul Haris

Pengertian dan ruang lingkup higiene industri adalah suatu ilmu dan seni yang mencurahkan perhatian pada pengenalan, evaluasi dan kontrol faktor lingkungan dan stress yang muncul di tempat kerja yang mungkin menyebabkan kesakitan, gangguan kesehatan dan kesejahteraan atau menimbulkan ketidaknyamanan di pada tenaga kerja maupun lingkungannya.
Prinsip Metode Higiene Industri:
Mengidentifikasi faktor lingkungan kerja yang membahayakan tenaga kerja dan melakukan tindakan koreksi maupun perbaikan. Ketika ada faktor bahaya yang teridentifikasi, seorang ahli higiene industri akan dapat mengambil tindakan koreksi dan melakukan langkah pengendalian bahaya tersebut. Prinsip AREC (antisipation, Recognition and Evaluation and Control.
Apakah tugas khusus seorang ahli higiene industri:
 Memastikan bahwa peraturan dan prosedur keselamatan dan kesehatan kerja dilaksanakan di tempat kerja.
 Melaksanakan inspeksi untuk mengidentifikasi potensi bahaya dan kondisi yang dapat menyebabkan perlukaan maupun kesakitan pada pekerja.
 Mengukur dan mengambil sampel bahan kimia berbahaya dan faktor fisik di tempat kerja.
 Merekommendasikan untuk menjamin lingkungan kerja yang sehat dan pekerja terjamin keselamatannya
 Metode: AREC (Anticipation Recognition Evaluation & Control)
 Cara mengontrol bahaya:
 Engineering (design, subsitution, isolation or ventilation)
 Administrative (perubahan pola dan praktek pekerjaan, rotasi, istirahat, assess fasilitas sanitasi)
 Personal Protective Equipment

List kontrol bahaya:
o Substitusi
o Perubahan proses
o Mekanisasi
o Isolasi proses
o Operasi tertutup
o Local exhaust ventilation
o Houskeeping
o PPE’s
o Education
Worksite Analysis
the industrial hygienist measures and identifies exposures, problem tasks, and risks.
• The most-effective worksite analyses include all jobs, operations, and work activities.
• The industrial hygienist inspects, researches, or analyzes how the particular chemicals or physical hazards at that worksite affect worker’s health.
• If a situation hazardous to health is discovered, the industrial hygienist recommends the appropriate corrective actions.
Recognizing And Controlling Hazards
 Industrial hygienists recognize that engineering, work practice, and administrative controls are the primary means of reducing employee exposure to occupational hazards.
 Engineering controls minimize employee exposure by either reducing or removing the hazard at the source or isolating the worker from the hazard. Engineering controls include eliminating toxic chemicals and substituting non-toxic chemicals, enclosing work processes or confining work operations, and the installation of general and local ventilation systems.
 Work practice controls alter the manner in which a task is performed. Some fundamental and easily implemented work practice controls include (1) changing existing work practices to follow proper procedures that minimize exposures while operating production and control equipment; (2) inspecting and maintaining process and control equipment on a regular basis; (3) implementing good housekeeping procedures; (4) providing good supervision; and (5) mandating that eating, drinking, smoking, chewing tobacco or gum, and applying cosmetics in regulated areas be prohibited.
 Administrative controls include controlling employees’ exposure by scheduling production and tasks, or both, in ways that minimize exposure levels. For example, the employer might schedule operations with the highest exposure potential during periods when the fewest employees are present.
 When effective work practices or engineering controls are not feasible or while such controls are being instituted, appropriate personal protective equipment must be used. Examples of personal protective equipment are gloves, safety goggles, helmets, safety shoes, protective clothing, and respirators. To be effective, personal protective equipment must be individually selected, properly fitted and periodically refitted; conscientiously and properly worn; regularly maintained; and replaced, as necessary.

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